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Mini - Symposia

Mini-Symposia Session IV
Thursday, October 4

Vaccination Against Infectious Diseases
Chaired by John Mascola, VRC/NIAID

2:00 p.m. to 3:30 p.m.
Natcher Conference Center
Main Auditorium

Recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms of protective immunity has begun to be translated into improved methods of inducing immune responses by vaccination. This knowledge has been applied to diseases for which no vaccine yet exists and to the potential optimization of existing vaccines. This session will focus on new knowledge and vaccine strategies related to development of protective vaccines against a diverse group of infectious diseases.

Nancy Sullivan, VRC, NIAID Vaccination Against Ebola
John Robbins, NICHD Pertussis Vaccines: Not All Virulence Factors are Protective Antigens
Carole Long, LPD, NIAID Progress Toward Development of a Malaria Vaccine
John Mascola, VRC, NIAID DNA and Viral Vectored HIV Vaccine Candidates
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Reactive Oxygen Species: Roles in Normal Physiologic Function
and in Disease

Chaired by Toren Finkel, NHLBI, and Sue Goo Rhee, NHLBI

2:00 p.m. to 3:30 p.m.
Natcher Conference Center
Balcony A

Cells are constantly being exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS). A large body of experimental evidence suggests that in many cases, a correlation exists between the degree of oxidative stress and the progression of a number of human diseases and conditions ranging from aging to neurodegeneration. Although it is clear that ROS can in certain situations function as random and deleterious molecules, emerging evidence suggests that a number of normal physiological processes are also modulated by cellular redox conditions. As more is learned about the role of oxidants in normal signaling pathways, the concept of ROS in disease is undergoing a healthy reevaluation. The purpose of this symposium is to provide an update on the role of ROS as regulators of a variety of physiological and pathophysiological pathways. It is hoped that these presentations will in turn provide the framework and perspective to understand how ROS participate in disease progression.

Rod Levine, NHLBI Oxidation of Proteins and Control of Proteolysis
Dan Sullivan, NHLBI In Situ Identification of Proteins that Contain Redox Active Cysteines
Tom Leto, NIAID Possible Physiological and Pathological Roles of NADPH Oxidases
Tong-Shin Chang, NHLBI Regulation of Peroxiredoxin I Peroxidase Activity by Cdc2 Kinase-dependent Phosphorylation
Chang C Chiueh, NIMH Different Role of OH and NO in Animal Models of Parkinsonism
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Chaired by Kuan Wang, NIAMS

2:00 p.m. to 3:30 p.m.
Natcher Conference Center
Balcony B

Recent advances in nanotechnology have led to the rapid development of promising analytical tools that can observe, probe and manipulate single molecules and single organelles in aqueous environments. The objective of this mini-symposium is to explore the state of the art methods that are used to understand the behavior of individual macromolecules and assembles and their interactions in real time.

The session will be tutorial in style and delivered by practicing intramural experts. The basic principles of single molecule fluorescence methods, laser tweezers and atomic force microscopy will be emphasized as practical tools to detect motion, rotation and force of biological motors, folding/unfolding of elastic proteins, order and strength of interactions of nucleosome components and membrane phase separation. Emerging trends of nanobiology will also be discussed.

Kuan Wang, NIAMS Nanobiology: An Era of Swinging Singles
Michael Lewis, NIAMS and Kuan Wang, NIAMS Single Molecule Fluorescence Microscopy: Seeing is Believing
James Sellers, NHLBI Laser Tweezers: Light Fantastic
Jeffery Forbes, Albert Jin, OD, and Kuan Wang, NIAMS Molecular Force Spectroscopy: Stretching Proteins Beyond Their Means
Sanford Leuba. NCI Laser Tweezers: Teasing Nucleosomes on a Single Chromatin Fiber
James A. Dvorak, NIAID, Fuyuki Tokumasu, NIAID, and Albert Jin, OD Atomic Force Microscopy: Seeing Waves in a Lipid Sea
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The Liver as Target and Regulator of Immune Responses to Infectious Pathogens
Chaired by Thomas A. Wynn, NIAID and Barbara Rehermann, NIDDK

2:00 p.m. to 3:30 p.m.
Natcher Conference Center
Balcony C

The liver is an immunologically distinct organ that contains its own unique population of cells of the innate (NK, NKT cells) and adaptive (CD4 and CD8 T cell) cellular immune response. It has been proposed that the liver is the site of induction of immune responses (J Immunol 2001; 166:5430-5438) as well as the site of elimination of apoptotic immune cells (J Immunol 2001; 166:3035-3041). This dual function is important to understand the pathogenesis of liver disease caused by parasitic and viral pathogens and to understand inductionof tolerance upon exposure to oral and allograft antigens. This mini-symposium will address the unique role of the liver as the target and regulator of cellular immune responses to infectious pathogens from different research perspectives to enhance discussion and collaborations.

Jens Bukh, NIAID Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis of Viral Hepatitis C
Barbara Rehermann, NIDDK Cellular immune responses to viral liver pathogens
Denise L. Doolan, Naval Medical Research Center Induction and Characterization of Liver-stage Protective Immunity Against Malaria
Matthias Hesse, NIAID Role of Arginase-1 in Parasite-induced Liver Fibrosis
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Mitochondria and Apoptosis
Chaired by Richard Youle, NINDS, and Steve Zullo, NIST/NCI

2:00 p.m. to 3:30 p.m.
Natcher Conference Center
Conference Room E1/E2

Apoptosis, a physiological process of cell destruction, is key to mammalian development, tissue turnover and cancer prevention. Surprisingly, mitochondria and their associated proteins initiate and regulate apoptosis. This symposium will cover how the Bcl-2 family member Bax specifically triggers a mitochondrial driven cascade of cell death, how ion channels participate in neuronal apoptosis and how mitochondria fission and fusion machinery can regulate cell viability.

Annette Khaled, NCI Bax and Mitochondrial Injury: The Multiple Pathways to Death Induced by IL-7 Withdrawal
Mark Mattson, NIA Anti-Apoptotic Functions of Potassium Channels in Neurons
Stephan Frank, NINDS The Role of Dynamin-Related Protein 1, a Mediator of Mitochondrial Fission, in Apoptosis
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Bacteriophage at the NIH: An Early Genetic Model Expands Disease Treatment and Diagnosis
Chaired by Carl R. Merril, NIMH, and Steve Zullo, NIST/NCI

2:00 p.m. to 3:30 p.m.
Natcher Conference Center
Conference Room F1/F2

Bacteriophage played a central role in the origins of molecular biology studies at the NIH. These efforts have resulted in advances that have provided a body of knowledge, which is facilitating the application of bacteriophage to a number of biomedical problems. The applications that will be discussed in this mini-symposium range from: the use of phage to study and enhance mutagenesis, to the use of phage display for the study of protein-protein interactions, and efforts to use phage as an antibacterial therapeutic agent.

Sankar Adhya, NCI Brief Introduction and Overview of the History of Phage Research at the NIH
Donald L. Court, NCI High Efficiency Mutagenesis, Using Double and Single-stranded DNA
Alasdair Steven, NIAMS Use of Phage Display for the Study of Structural Biology
Susan Garges and Glenn Merlino (NCI) The Use of Mice Transgenic for Bacteriophage lambda: Inherent Genetic Instability Associated with ErbB2-induced Mammary Ttumorigenesis
Carl R. Merril and Dean Scholl (NIMH) Use of Phage in Antibacterial Therapy
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