NIH Research Festival
Scedosporium species and Lomentospora have been increasingly recognized as emerging opportunists affecting immunocompromised patients. Reduced susceptibility to systemic antifungals is common, and optimal treatments are incompletely described.
103 clinical isolates from NIH were investigated. The identity of each isolate was confirmed at the species level via PCR-sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region and the calmodulin gene. Antifungal susceptibility testing was conducted in accordance with the CLSI M38-A3 guidelines. Patient data were collected retrospectively.
The most frequent species were Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium boydii, and Lomentospora prolificans. The novel antifungal olorofim showed the lowest MICs against all Scedosporium and L. prolificans, followed by micafungin. Among triazoles, voriconazole (VRC) showed lower MIC values against clinical members of Scedosporium. Amphotericin and posaconazole (POS) demonstrated species-specific and inter-species variable activity. Itraconazole, isavuconazole, and terbinafine had high MICs against Scedosporium and L. prolificans.
Clinical data were available for 90 isolates. 9 patients (28 isolates) had disease or infection. All but one case occurred in immunocompromised hosts, and all patients were treated with a regimen that included VRC or POS. Five patients died. 24 patients (62 isolates) had colonization, of which 58 isolates reflected respiratory colonization in patients with bronchiectasis.
Our data support that species-specific and inter-species differences exist in the distribution of antifungal susceptibility patterns among Scedosporium and L. prolificans. Olorofim may be a promising therapy for Scedosporium and L. prolificans. Host status, in conjunction with effective antifungal therapy, is an important determinant in treatment outcomes.
Scientific Focus Area: Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
This page was last updated on Monday, September 25, 2023